Ray Grasshoff

Editor - Writer - Author

Editing Services


Type of Editing 


Intensive Editing

  Substantive editing helps ensure the best possible accuracy, clarity, and flow of information. It takes more of a big picture approach than copyediting. In practice, it includes all of the elements of copyediting (see below) with the addition of any or all of these services as needed:
  • Identifying and/or solving inconsistencies, such as in statements, facts, and other areas.
  • Reorganization of sentences, paragraphs, and/or sections to improve clarity and readability.
  • Limited writing or rewriting of text to improve clarity and readability.
  • Reading for sense/meaning as related to the intended audience.
  • Identifying problems, issues, or concerns beyond those addressed by editing.

  See example of an Intensive Edit

Beginning at
$50 per hour.

$50 charge
per job.
Surface Editing

  Copyediting looks for basic errors. It's more of a "surface" edit than substantive editing and includes only very minimal rewriting. Copyediting includes any/all of these elements:
  • Correcting spelling, grammar, punctuation, syntax, and word usage while preserving the meaning and voice of the original text.
  • Ensuring a consistent style and format.
  • Cross-checking Table of Contents, references, graphics, figures, tables, equations, and other items for consistency with their mentions in the text.

  See example of a Surface Edit

Beginning at
$40 per hour.

$40 charge
per job.
Proofreading (transcripts)

  Primarily of value to court reporters, this service involves reading final transcripts (provided as PDF or ASCII files) for spelling, punctuation, and typographical errors. An errata sheet identifying any errors is produced for clients.

Beginning at
35 cents
per page, without audio.

$10 charge  per job.

Ray Grasshoff
Austin, Texas
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